Research in education. (1992) came, very close into the substance of this paper when they came up with a, Resource Book with Special Reference to Zimbabwe, at providing “a basis for a textbook for use in a genuinely multi-faith, approach to Religious and Moral Education in Zimbabwean secondary, schools” (ter Haar et al. Unhu (equivalent to Zulu “Ubuntu”) is a humanist philosophy often summarized as “I am what I am because of who we all are.” There is an Unhu facebook page. 2 E. B. Idowu, African Traditional Religion, S.C.M., 1973, p.87. Like ter Haar et al. I strongly encourage you to utilise the religious beliefs and practices of your own community. In the case of Zimbabwe, a, policy is in place to the effect that African Traditional Religion should, be taught in Religious and Moral Education classes and the grades, 1–2 Religious And Moral Education syllabus has been revised. In the, same vein the grade 5s are encouraged to develop the habit of wor-, ship by learning about the forms of worship in a variety of Christian, analysis of these examples shows that the syllabus fosters in pupils the, development of Christian values and they elbow out the learning of, other religious values other than the Christian ones. the Midlands State University in Zimbabwe and was a visiting lecturer at Great Zimbabwe University in 2006. This theory allows me to name, expose and challenge oppression and injustice in and exclusion from social structures. STUDENTS 1 .1 Religious Studies as exclusively Christian 1.2 Religious Education is Boring 1.3 Christianity used to oppress the Black people 2. Policymakers need to have a positive attitude toward African Tra-, ditional Religion so that the subject is given due attention at both, curriculum planning and implementation levels. A sample of 171 Bachelor of Education (In-Service) primary students of Great Zimbabwe University participated in the study. African spirituality, sometimes referred to as African Traditional Religion used to pervade all aspects of life. The conclusions drawn from the study are that the attitudes of, teachers were positive toward the incorporation of African Traditional, Religion in the teaching of Religious and Moral Education. The design was also appropriate as it allowed the researchers. Related, to that, 73.1% of the respondents were of the view that African Tra-, ditional Religion is not only taught as a necessary component of Reli-, gious and Moral Education, but also as a requisite background for the, understanding of other religions. In this study, the design, was used in order to determine attitudes, challenges, and opportunities, in the teaching of African Traditional Religion in Zimbabwe’s primary, schools. They believed that AIDS results from ‘pollution’ caused by sexual intercourse with ‘unclean’ women, while a few attributed it to having unprotected sex with an infected partner. Joel Marashe , Gamuchirai Tsitsiozashe Ndamba & Excellent, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00344080802615325, To help the child see that Jesus was (specially) sent by God to show. This is because African Traditional Religion is at the outskirts, in a Religious Education curriculum whose syllabus is still Christian, in its content, especially the Junior (grades 3–7) section. and the philosophy that makes Africans tick socially and religiously. A descriptive survey design was used. All prayerful and peace loving Zimbabweans Welcome! Zimbabwe continued to be removed from these indigenous cultures. ¿Por qué no se incluye esta disciplina en los planes de estudio de las etapas previas a la Universidad? Given that information about HIV/AIDS is communicated through posters and pamphlets written in English, it would benefit the community, if the Ministry of Health and Child Care could provide information in the Ndau language. African Traditional Religion influences every area of an African life. The Relationship between God and People in Shona Traditional Religion . 2 Wrong ideas: African Religion is ancestor worship. (Tasie, 1980). Examples of African traditional religion or philosophy in Zimbabwe include: Mwali Religion. traditional religion in order to promote Christian faith among Adventists in Zimbabwe. An attempt is made to … Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. In 2003, when the Department of Education in South Africa promulgated its National Policy on Religion and Education, Religion Education was introduced in schools. Reflective teaching in the primary school: A handbook for the Many researchers, such as ter Haar et al. There can be no Christian faith without social action! For years, the study of African religions has presented challenges both to the students and instructors. African Traditional Religion: A Definition (1973), Omosade Awolalu in Yoruba Belief and Sacrificial Rites and John Mbiti in The Concept of God in Africa (1970) are a few examples of postcolonial scholars of religion who have resisted and denounced colonial idea that Africans do not know God. The group was considered small enough to render sampling unnecessary. It outlines the central concerns of the method and illustrates how the Western context has shaped the development of phenomenology. The result of the conference was the designing of a revised, national Religious and Moral Education syllabus especially for the, Infants (grades 1–2) section. It is the author's view that there is considerable teaching of ethics by religion teachers at second level schools in Ireland. “Traditional marriage cannot be understood outside traditional religion and Bantu culture.” According to Dr Paul Kyalo in a paper titled A Reflection on the African Traditional Values of Marriage and Sexuality, the African traditional marriage system had solutions to many of the problems that todays’couples and families face. In Shona and Ndebele religion, God, or the Supreme Being, is seen as the creator and sustainer of the universe in much the same manner as within Christianity. Respondent's Understanding of African Traditional Religion, All content in this area was uploaded by Joel Marashe on Sep 01, 2015, This article was downloaded by: [University of Pretoria], [Joel MARASHE], Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales R. Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, Publication details, including instructions for. This belief, just as in the case of the previous one, has a theological basis – the plurality of divinities ( polytheism ). SUPERVISORS Professor Sarojini Nadar Professor Hassan O. Kaya The terminal, objectives to be achieved, for example objectives 2 and 5, which, what God the Father is like and to give men power through the Holy, Spirit to do what He requires of them, or, do not give room for the teaching of religions other than Christian-, ity. To obtain valid and accurate data, the. Most participants defined HIV/AIDS as a blend of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that take time to treat. Examples of African traditional religion or philosophy in Zimbabwe include: The Mwali hilltop cult and shrines is discussed in the 2008 book Mambo Hills: Historical and Religious Significance by Marieke Clarke (reviews). The study revealed that African Traditional Religion is not given due attention. The study re-. More specifically, the argument informing the article is that it is not only possible, but also necessary, in terms of the principals’ mandate to mediate policy implementation in schools. In general, people communicate with Mwari through the vadzimu (Shona), or amadhlozi (Ndebele). in. Furthermore, 67.3% of the respondents vehemently, distanced themselves from associating African Traditional Religion. 1975. In Karanga indigenous religion in Zimbabwe: health and well-being, Prof. Tabona Shoko analyses the traditional Karanga views of the causes of illness and disease, mechanisms of diagnosis at their disposal and the methods they use to restore health, Shoko discusses the views of a specific African Independent Church of the Apostolic tradition. Why is this discipline not included in the syllabus of pre-university education levels? In Our Mission to Teach, a Pastoral Statement on, Education (1987, 16–17), the Zimbabwe Catholic Bishops lent their, support when they agreed that: “It is culture that gives the country, It is worthy to note that it is essential to build a new nation on, ﬁrm moral principles, which could not be achieved if the children of. The open-ended questions ensured valid. The first is that the context of this article is sub-Sahara Africa. This makes the use of the multi-faith approach irrelevant to this, It is in view of the foregoing that this study sought to establish, the degree to which African Traditional Religion is being taught in, Zimbabwe’s primary schools. This stance suggests an appreciation of the value they attach, to African Traditional Religion. constantly being involved in the lesson through discussion, listening, larly Aim 3, which seeks to help pupils to: “Know about other religions, they are likely to encounter in Zimbabwe so that they understand, their differences and appreciate their similarities,” and Aim 4 whose, resolve is to help pupils to: “respect people whose beliefs differ from, theirs, hence developing a spirit of tolerance and cooperation among, The themes to be taught cover a wide range of pupils’ experiences. Mambo Hills is northeast of Bulawayo. This, however, limited them in expressing, themselves. (1992), Chitando (1998), and Mbiti (1969), have contributed immensely in literature that per-. the latter was still in use before and after Zimbabwe’s independence. The newly independent nation was in search of its own, genuine culture. Go directly to the text of the paper. In another chapter, puberty rites were mentioned as another rites of passage. The respondents, were allowed enough time to complete the questionnaire, after which, they were collected, ensuring a 100% response rate. (1992, 4), the researchers agree that, African religion occupies a cardinal position because it does not only, assist in the revival and consolidation of African cultural practices and, beliefs and the re-establishment of self-identity, but also promotes. Some respondents, however, indicated, that the multi-faith approach entails the teaching of religions other, than African Traditional Religion, as it has no textbooks and written, Such positive attitudes provide opportunities for the teaching of, African Traditional Religion topics in Religious and Moral Educa-, tion lessons. . traditional religion, their shrines and amulets to observe Sundays piously, and to eschew alcohol, stealing and adultery, the last two being most rampant crimes in societies. London: Heinmann Educational Books Ltd. Ministry of Education, Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe’s Education Ministry recommended the teaching of African Traditional Religion in schools in recognition of its multi-religious society. African religions and the nature of religious studies. In another chapter, puberty rites were mentioned as another rites of passage. They should also put, into consideration the experience of children because African Tradi-, tional Religion pervades all aspects of life. The book finds that the centrality of health and well-being is not only confined to traditional religion but reflects its adaptive potential in new religious systems manifest in the phenomenon of Independent Churches. Some scholars claim that African Independent Churches are syncretistic in that they combine indigenous African religion with Christian beliefs, but the degree to which this occurs is varying. with or arising out of the use of this material. of Zimbabwe (pdf). traditional religion in order to promote Christian faith among Adventists in Zimbabwe. Traditional Religion is because it is not examined in grade 7. ever, more needs to be done in terms of provision of relevant sources. Bias Volume 18 is a book that is dedicated to critically unpack the meaning of the call to re-write the Bible made by the first President of Zimbabwe, Canaan S. Banana in 1991. teaching of African Traditional Religion. Ibid. Although a substantial portion of the Zimbabwean population today belongs to a Christian congregation or church, people retain many of the traditional customs and beliefs in traditional religion such as Shona or Ndebele religions. We shall try to illustrate that African culture and values can be appraised from The questionnaire had, both closed or ﬁxed and free-response questions. RESPONSES FROM HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS AND H.D.E. Christianity in Africa and in most parts of Africa … philosophical appraisal of African culture and values is not only apt and timely, but also appropriate. Zimbabwe's Education Ministry recommended the teaching of African Traditional Religion in recognition of its multi-religious society. Therefore, given a conducive environment such as the, provision of relevant textbooks for both the teachers and pupils, a. supportive revised syllabus, and the appropriate teaching approaches, teachers can effectively and efﬁciently incorporate African Traditional. upper-primary school children at an NGO, which gives shelter to street children and provides them education through government schools and in-house teachers. Thus, Traditional Religion as, a cardinal cultural tenet of society could be used to champion and. Strengths-based practice, which recognises African traditional belief systems as a source of resilience, should be recognised. At an international level, Zimbabwe is a State Party to a number of regional and international conventions and treaties that support gender equality in particular the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women- the CEDAW and the Optional Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights of Women in Africa The traditional African understanding and the interpretation of Christianity have deep roots in these fundamental beliefs of the African traditional religions. Religions and moral education infants syllabus. The Ngomakurira Mountain in the Chinamhora Communal Land. The child is. African traditional religion. It is hard to destroy its beliefs. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any, representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to, date. in the post-independent Zimbabwe, like during the colonial times, Christianity is still being associated with civilization whereas African, Traditional Religion is associated with backwardness. This provides a fertile ground for, the incorporation of African Traditional Religion topics in Religious, and Moral Education lessons. Data was collected through questionnaires and analysis of Religious and Moral Education syllabi. The purpose of this study was to critically examine three different approaches to educational provision in Zimbabwe during the pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial periods. ter Haar et al. Missions were launched in Zimbabwe and there was the first time the country was introduced to Protestantism. The ancestors are without question the most prominent aspect of African religion, in fact, they are the heart of the African spirit world. This paper focuses on the conicts between African Traditional Religion and Christianity. Once there, is moral breakdown the whole integrity of the society breaks down. The study relies on document analysis, in particular the 1999 Presidential Commission of Inquiry into Education and Training report, the Curriculum Framework for Primary and Secondary Education (2015–2022), and literature on multifaith religious education and phenomenology of religion. Chrispen Matsika, University of Massachusetts Amherst. African Traditional Religion regards disability as a curse from the consolidate a genuine Zimbabwean identity. A particular action is regarded (by implication and praxis) as right when performed bypersons of a particular religion, tribe and party affiliation, but as an abomination when performed by some otherpersons. One study (abstract) revealed that the teaching of this subject faces challenges in primary schools. In addition there is a sizable number of adherents in African-influenced religions in Material in this training manual is largely based on information from the Impact of Religion on Women™s Rights in Africa Workshop, held in Zimbabwe, 1 Œ 2 November 2000. London: The Open University. This is necessary in order to avoid the unfortunate impression that it is the prerogative of Western scholars. With the attitude of teachers essentially positive in the teaching, of African Traditional Religion, there is a need to have a support-. The Junior (grades 3–7) section is quite different from the Infant. Masiiwa R. Gunda, “Christianity, Traditional Religion, and Healing in Zimbabwe.” Swedish Missiological Themes 95, no. It provides a brief background to, Through the innovative method of Islamic education learning, the learning atmosphere in the classroom is not stuck in a rigid and monotonous atmosphere. ... That is, although provision was made for learners with a Muslim or Hindu religious orientation in public schools controlled by the House of Delegates, 1 learners from religions other than Christianity were denied equal freedom and treatment. We recommend the school curriculum to implement culture-oriented mathematics education that ensures the survival of African culture.Â. In Zimbabwe, San religious concepts are similar to those of South Africa, however the eland is replaced by the elephant and other animals. In Shona religion, in addition to the guarding characteristics of the vadzimu, there are also avenging or evil spirits, ngozi, and witches who communicate with them. questionnaires were also easy to administer and collect. This study sought to establish the extent to which African Traditional Religion is taught in primary schools, the challenges faced by teachers, and opportunities for promoting its teaching. ZIMBABWE ANNIEGRACE MAPANGISANA HLATYWAYO 207520221 Submitted in Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy (School of Religion, Philosophy and Classics), in the College of Humanities at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. According to Cohen, and Manion (1989) and Newman (2000), the descriptive survey is. Thus, the teacher must, be a specialist in charge and he or she must be aware of change as an, In general, African Traditional Religion lacks recognized written, textual traditions and this makes it difﬁcult to persist in its teaching, and analysis. There are many reasons why I ascribe to my traditional African religion or customs; the most obvious reason being the association of Christianity with colonisation and the impact it has had on African mentality. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. in Religious studies: Issues, prospects, and proposals, edited by K. Klostermaier and L. Hurtado Atlanta: This comes about due to the fact that African, religion lacks a large corpus of textual literature or recognized writ-, ten traditions and consequently difﬁcult to persist in analysis divorced, Furthermore, 50.9% of the respondents disagreed that all African, children essentially belong to African Traditional Religion. South Africa borders it to the south, Mozambique to the east and northeast, Zambia to the northwest, and Botswana to the west and southwest. Key Words data because they evoked fuller and well-thought-out responses. In 1795, the London Missionary Society was founded to promote the spread of Protestantism into Africa and Asia. ZIMBABWE ANNIEGRACE MAPANGISANA HLATYWAYO 207520221 Submitted in Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy (School of Religion, Philosophy and Classics), in the College of Humanities at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. Thus this, study sought to establish the extent or degree to which African Tra-, ditional Religion is taught in the primary schools of Zimbabwe. differs in African countries was mentioned. It calls for the re-conceptualisation of RE de-linked from colonial/Eurocentric thought patterns and presents an ‘envisioned’ decolonised RE (post-confessional, inclusive and multi-faith) that speaks to the political and socio-cultural reality of a postcolonial environment in sub-Saharan Africa. The authority of the most proximate ancestors is present. How to design and evaluate research in education. African Traditional Religion, taught, as a component of Religious and Moral Education, helps pupils to, Respondents were also appreciative of the fact that African Tradi-, tional Religion is part of their cultural heritage. The Muslim community consists primarily of South Asian immigrants (Indian and Pakistani), a small number of indigenous Zimbabweans, and a very small number of North African and Middle Eastern immigrants. Culture gives the country its identity. 3.1 African Traditional Religion as a New Religion 4. Spirit mediums communicate with the vadzimu on behalf of the people. It was discovered, through personal observations and through the tools ofanalytical and deductive reasoning via library research methodology, that certain aspects of certain religiousteachings have great positive impact on societal cohesion which leads to development in the Nigerian society whilesome others rather sow the seed of discord, injustice, hate and rancor that have led to killings, oppressions andupsurges that have characterized the Nigerian social space for decades on end and have drastically militated againstsocial development of Nigeria. London: Marshall, Morgan & Scott. Scholars Press. This paper focuses on the conicts between African Traditional Religion and Christianity. a method of gathering original data by assessing opinions, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors in order to describe existing conditions to, determine the relations between variables. This present study is investigating preliminary views and conceptionsÂ of in-service teachers on culture and mathematics education. As such, there is a need to produce textbooks for both pupils and, teachers that incorporate African Traditional Religion or to have text-, books on African Traditional Religion. The vadzimu are believed to constitute an invisible community within the community of the living, always around their descendants, caring for them and participating in their joys and sorrows. Results show that kuputsa (pledged or child marriage), barika (polygamy), and kugara nhaka (wife inheritance) are harmful marriage practices that expose people to HIV infection. such as forgiving and reconciliation, listening and communicating. Inter-religious relations, especially, among African Traditional Religion (ATR) worshippers, Muslims and Christians are becoming sources of social tension and violence. The religion of the San people, or Bushmen, of southern Africa consists of a spirit world and our material world. The training systems of Africans such as the traditional schools did exist, but most Pollard, A. and S. Tann. Recommendations include: religious education must consider the virtue of justice, itmust adhere to the demands of rationality, it must be universalizable and not myopic, it must be dynamic, and it mustbe morally honest and must proceed from right conscience rather than a sick conscience. Generally, when, one is knowledgeable in the subject area, one tends to be motivated, to teach, as noted by Pollard and Tann (1993). Each of the approximately 55,000 members pays annual dues. The present research therefore, aims at bridging this void by focusing on the teaching of African. Some of these challenges include the nature of African religions, adequate resources, especially on specific communities’ beliefs; a history of misconception and marginalization, pedagogy, theoretical framework and approaches to instruction. Using purposive and snowball sampling procedures, 72 study participants, knowledgeable in the Shona people’s traditional beliefs and practices, were selected. Abstract: The teacher and, the pupil alike are thus forced to look at what people do as well as what, they say (Hexham, 1989). Masiiwa R. Gunda, “Christianity, Traditional Religion, and Healing in Zimbabwe.” Swedish Missiological Themes 95, no. Thus the Infant syllabus reﬂects the new dispensation and as-, pirations of the post-colonial Zimbabwe, whereas the Junior syllabus, still harbors the aspirations of the colonial masters. Hexman, I. Guardian spirits are family oriented while territorial spirits are clan/community oriented. Under this new framework, spoken words alone would no longer be considered a witchcraft practice or evidence of illegal activity. An attempt is made to … 18.104.22.168 Traditional Leadership in West Africa (Ghana) _____ 21 22.214.171.124 Traditional Leadership Southern Africa (Zimbabwe) _____ 21 2.5.4 Traditional Leadership in selected Southern African Developed Countries _____ 22 126.96.36.199 Traditional Leadership in West Africa (Ghana) _____ 21 188.8.131.52 Traditional Leadership Southern Africa (Zimbabwe) _____ 21 2.5.4 Traditional Leadership in selected Southern African Developed Countries _____ 22 The study aimed to examine the traditional beliefs and practices that people in Chipinge rural communities still practise, have stopped practising, or have modified due to the encroachment of HIV/AIDS into the communities’ socio-moral space. Abstract. Data was collected through a questionnaire survey on all 27 teachers who majored in mathematics education. ANTHROPOLOGY PROFESSOR AND THE ANTHROPOLOGY IN THE SECONDARY EDUCATION A pesar de que la Antropología es una disciplina esencial en la formación de los alumnos de etapas preuniversitarias, estos, a la conclusión de sus estudios de Bachillerato, apenas han oído hablar de ella, de sus contenidos, de sus autores o de su mirada a la hora de afrontar la interpretación de los acontecimientos sociales. Recommendations for effective teaching were made. 1992, 43), thus there is need to, decolonize the African religious mindset so that it can appreciate the. And why? Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Method A description and an analysis of the traditional religion is undertaken through utilization of the already abundant anthropological literature on this religion. labus does not promote the teaching of African Traditional Religion, whereas an overwhelming majority (60.4%) of the grades 1–2 teach-, ers said their syllabus promotes the teaching of African Traditional. This study sought to establish the extent to which African Traditional Religion is taught in primary schools, the challenges faced by teachers, and opportunities for promoting its teaching. The researcher guided respondents, on what choices to make. This approach is important as it allows teachers to, start teaching from where the pupils are, with their interests and level, of understanding being taken into consideration. , thus there is indeed a thin african traditional religion in zimbabwe pdf between the sacred it revolves around terminal and. Of views were expressed as to why African Traditional belief systems as a source resilience! Was adopted because it enhances non-cohesive participation, which recognises African Traditional Religion spirituality... Of southern Africa consists of a multifaith Religious Education, Zimbabwe sexually transmitted infections ( STIs ) take... With Maurice Bloch in the Traditional African Education: its significance in countries... 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