[178] The Shah also maintained close relations with King Hussein of Jordan, President Anwar Sadat of Egypt, and King Hassan II of Morocco. He also had a passion for automobiles and aeroplanes, and by the middle 1970s, the Shah had amassed one of the world's largest collection of luxury cars and planes. [17] During her time in Los Angeles, Soraya met her favorite stars who were Grace Kelly, Lauren Bacall, Bob Hope, Esther Williams, and Humphrey Bogart. Soraya was a regular client of the hairdresser Alexandre Zouari. The Shah was taken later by U.S. Air Force jet to Kelly Air Force Base in Texas and from there to Wilford Hall Medical Center at Lackland Air Force Base. [294], In 1974 the Shah's doctor, Dr. Ayadi, diagnosed the Shah with splenomegaly after he complained of a swollen abdomen. [67], My dear son, since the time I resigned in your favour and left my country, my only pleasure has been to witness your sincere service to your country. Mohammad Reza shared the Empress's sentiments as Westerners came begging to his court looking for his largesse, leading him to remark in 1976: Now we are the masters and our former masters are our slaves. Mohammad-Reza Pahlavi (born on 26 October 1919 - Died on 27 July 1980 (aged 60). [42] Her belongings were sold at auction in Paris in 2002, for more than $8.3 million. [291] When he first met Mohammad Reza, Torrijos taunted him by telling him "it must be hard to fall off the Peacock Throne into Contadora" and called him a "chupon", a Spanish term meaning an orange that has all the juice squeezed out of it, which is slang for someone who is finished. Mohammad Reza expressed concern for his exiled father who had previously complained to the British governor of Mauritius that living on the island was both a climatic and social prison. [138] Afterwards, Mohammad Reza visited London. [179] Beginning in 1970, Mohammad Reza formed an unlikely alliance with the militantly left-wing regime of Colonel Muammar Gaddafi of Libya, as both leaders wanted higher oil prices for their nations, leading Iran and Libya joining forces to press for the "leapfrogging" of oil prices. [3][4], Mohammad Reza came to power during World War II after an Anglo-Soviet invasion forced the abdication of his father, Reza Shah Pahlavi. "[139] The Shah wrote back, addressing Khomeini as Hojat-al Islam rather than as Ayatollah, declining his request. Soraya Esfandiary-Bakhtiary (Persian: ثریا اسفندیاری بختیاری ‎, romanized: Sorayâ Esfandiyâri-Baxtiyâri; 22 June 1932 – 26 October 2001) was the queen consort of Iran as the second wife of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, whome she married in 1951.. Their marriage suffered many pressures, particularly when it became clear that she was infertile. 385 & 409. In twenty years' time we shall be ahead of the United States". [300] Shortly after, the Shah slipped into a coma and died on 27 July 1980 at age 60. Another factor guiding Mohammad Reza in his foreign policy was his wish for financial stability, which required strong diplomatic ties. [30] Tadj ol-Molouk was the main emotional support to her son, cultivating a belief in him that destiny had chosen him for great things, as the soothsayers she consulted had explained her dreams as proving just precisely that. Milani, Abbas The Shah, London: Macmillan, 2011, pp. [27] The British Ambassador to Iran reported "Soraya was the Shah's only true love" and he was "a man at an emotional cross-roads", who was happy to be able to marry again while unable to "bring himself to face it" that he had just divorced Soraya. On his way back to the palace, the streets filled with people welcoming the new Shah jubilantly, seemingly more enthusiastic than the Allies would have liked. The Iranian government demanded his return to Iran, but he stayed in the hospital. In 1961 he defended his style of rule, saying "When Iranians learn to behave like Swedes, I will behave like the King of Sweden. Attentively following his life in exile, Mohammad Reza would object to his father's treatment to British at any opportunity. Although when interviewed on 60 Minutes by reporter Mike Wallace, he criticised American Jews for their presumed control over U.S. media and finance, those remarks were intended to pacify Arab critics, and bilateral relations between Iran and Israel were not adversely affected. Milani, Abbas The Shah, London: Macmillan, 2011, p. 413. The Shah later met with French physicians in 1976 in Zurich who were disturbed by the Shah's abnormal blood count. I have lived with God besides me since I was 5 years old. However, Shams, Mohammad Reza, Ashraf, Ali Reza, and their older half-sister, Fatimeh, were not royalty by birth, as their father did not become Shah until 1925. [269] During the extravagant festivities to celebrate the 2500th anniversary, the Shah was quoted as saying at Cyrus's tomb: "Rest in peace, Cyrus, for we are awake". [106], In the aftermath of the 1953 coup d'état, Mohammad Reza was widely viewed as a figurehead monarch, and General Fazlollah Zahedi, the Prime Minister, saw himself and was viewed by others as the "strong man" of Iran. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was the last Shah of Iran, his reign lasted from 1941 until his overthrow in 1979. [202], In 1976, Mohammad Reza told the Egyptian journalist Mohamed Hassanein Heikal in an interview: "I want the standard of living in Iran in ten years' time to be exactly on a level with that in Europe today. They roamed Tehran, raising red flags and pulling down statues of Reza Shah. Improvement of the educational system was made through the creation of new elementary schools. [12], During the confrontation with Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh of the left-wing National Front, Mohammad Reza was often depressed, being in her words "somber and distressed" to the extent he even stopped playing poker with his friends, which had been one of his main passions. Subsequent to his succession as king, Iran became a major conduit for British and, later, American aid to the USSR during the war. U.S. actions further solidified sentiments that the West was a meddlesome influence in Iranian politics. [151] Milani noted the close connection between architecture and power in Iran as architecture is the "poetry of power" in Iran. [69] At the same time, the growing popularity of the Tudeh Party also worried Mohammad Reza, who felt there was a serious possibility of a coup by the Tudeh. He returned to Egypt in March 1980, where he received urgent medical treatment, including a splenectomy performed by Michael DeBakey. [52] As his father's closest advisor, the Crown Prince Mohammad Reza did not see fit to raise the issue of a possible Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, blithely assuring his father that nothing would happen. Milani, Abbas The Shah, London: Macmillan, 2011, pp. He has no moral courage and succumbs easily to fear". Princess Hamdam Saltaneh Pahlavi (1903–1992) 2nd Spouse Tadj ol-Molouk Ayromlou (1896–1982) Issue Princess Shams Pahlavi (1917–1996 at age 79) Crown Prince Mohammad-Reza Shah Pahlavi (1919–1980 at age 61) Princess Ashraf Pahlavi (1919-2016 at age 97) Prince Ali Reza Pahlavi (1922–1954 at age 32) Farah Pahlavi was the only woman to have this title. However, I am not entirely alone, because a force others can't perceive accompanies me. [4] Soraya was raised in Berlin and Isfahan, and educated in London and Switzerland. Poverty and squalor. The very masculine Mohammad Reza vetoed this idea, saying he did not want Farah to be "Joan of Arc," and it would be too humiliating for him as a man to flee Iran and leave a woman in charge. [97] To get him to support the coup, his twin sister Princess Ashraf, who was much tougher than him and publicly questioned his manhood several times, visited him on 29 July 1953 to berate him into signing a decree dismissing Mossaddegh. [215] Khomeini's supporters had brought in audio tapes of his sermons, and Mohammad Reza was angry with one sermon, alleging corruption on his part, and decided to hit back with the article, despite the feeling at the court, SAVAK and Ettela'at editors that the article was an unnecessary provocation that was going to cause trouble. He lay down on the seat and covered himself with a blanket as guards waved his driver through the gates. After that event, the Shah again sought the support of Egyptian president Anwar El-Sadat, who renewed his offer of permanent asylum in Egypt to the ailing monarch. "[332] Despite this, the royal family's wealth can be seen as one of the factors behind the Iranian revolution. He stated in part, "we pray the Almighty God to guide mankind towards ever increasing success in the establishment of culture, knowledge and human civilisation". [73] On 11 December 1946, the Iranian Army led by the Shah in person entered Iranian Azerbaijan and the Pishevari regime collapsed with little resistance, with most of the fighting occurring between ordinary people who attacked functionaries of the Pishevari regime who had behaved brutally. [19] Like most Iranians at the time, Reza Khan did not have a surname and after the 1921 Persian coup d'état which deposed Ahmad Shah Qajar, he was informed that he would need a name for his house. Recently, the Shah's reputation has experienced something of a revival in Iran, with some people looking back on his era as a time when Iran was more prosperous[306][307] and the government less oppressive. During his early days as Shah, Mohammad Reza lacked self-confidence and spent most of his time with Perron writing poetry in French. That evening, Henderson suggested to Ardashir that Mosaddegh not be harmed. 22.37 carat diamond engagement ring. They were enraged that the referendum approving of the White Revolution in 1963 allowed women to vote, with the Ayatollah Khomeini saying in his sermons that the fate of Iran should never be allowed to be decided by women. Oil prices increased 470 per cent over a 12-month period, which also increased Iran's GDP by 50 per cent. As to infrastructural and technological progress, the Shah continued and developed further the policies introduced by his father. The list showed that the Pahlavi dynasty had interests in, amongst other things, 17 banks and insurance companies, including a 90 per cent ownership in the nation's third-largest insurance company, 25 metal enterprises, 8 mining companies, 10 building materials companies, including 25 per cent of the largest cement company, 45 construction companies, 43 food companies, and 26 enterprises in trade or commerce, including a share of ownership in almost every major hotel in Iran; the Pahlavis also had major interests in real estate. "[26] Soraya was well rewarded for the divorce with the Shah buying her a penthouse apartment in Paris that was valued at $3 million US, paying her a monthly alimony of $7,000 US (that continued to be paid until the Islamic Revolution overthrew Mohammad Reza in 1979), together with various luxuries such as a 1958 Rolls-Royce Phantom IV, a Mercedes-Benz 300 SL, a Bulgari ruby, a Van Cleef & Arpels brooch and a Harry Winston platinum ring with a 22.37-carat diamond that after her death was sold at the estate auction for $838,350 US. This led Reza Khan to pass a law ordering all Iranians to take a surname; he chose for himself the surname Pahlavi, which is the name for the Middle Persian language, itself derived from Old Persian. Also he had a history of indigestion. 401–402. [120] Another issue in Iranian-American relations was Mohammad Reza's suspicion that the United States was insufficiently committed to Iran's defence, observing that the Americans refused to join the Baghdad Pact, and military studies had indicated that Iran could only hold out for a few days in the event of a Soviet invasion. The couple remained together for twenty one years, until the Shah's death. [151] Mohammad Reza was a Francophile whose court had a decidedly French ambiance to it. She stated that only sex could lift Mohammad Reza out of his depression, and she often invited the Shah into her bed to keep his spirits up. Upon arriving at the Marble Palace, Collbarn noted that "the Shah must have twenty-five custom-built cars...Buicks, Cadillacs, six Rolls-Royces, a Mercedes". But he was annoyed that the film focused only on Iran's past, writing to Lamorisse there were no modern buildings in his film, which he charged made Iran look "backward". Milani, Abbas The Shah, London: Macmillan, 2011, pp. [212][213] The first militant anti-Shah demonstrations of a few hundred started in October 1977, after the death of Khomeini's son Mostafa. The Soviets tried to use a TV remote control to detonate a bomb-laden Volkswagen Beetle; the TV remote failed to function. These activities alienated Islamic traditionalists and hastened the fall of the Shah. Due to his status as the last Shah of Iran, he is often known as simply the Shah. He received a sentence of ten years in Evin prison on drug charges. Milani, Abbas The Shah, London: Macmillan, 2011, p. 391. Still, I often reflect, if I am driven-or perhaps I should say supported-by another force, there must be a reason. [122] After receiving a mildly threatening letter from President Eisenhower warning him against signing the treaty, Mohammad Reza chose not to sign, which led to a major Soviet propaganda effort calling for his overthrow. [155], As part of his efforts to modernise Iran and give the Iranian people a non-Islamic identity, Mohammad Reza quite consciously started to celebrate Iranian history before the Arab conquest with a special focus on the Achaemenid period. [222] Milani wrote that the Shah was in 1978 "beset with depression, indecision and paralysis, and his indecision led to the immobilisation of the entire system. On 19 August 1953, pro-Shah partisans—bribed with $100,000 in CIA funds—finally appeared and marched out of south Tehran into the city centre, where others joined in. Mohammad Reza 's third and final wife was Farah Diba (born 14 October 1938), the only child of Sohrab Diba, a captain in the Imperial Iranian Army (son of an Iranian ambassador to the Romanov Court in St. Petersburg, Russia), and his wife, the former Farideh Ghotbi. Farah Pahlavi (Persian: فرح پهلوی‎, née Farah Diba Persian: فرح دیبا‎; born 14 October 1938) is the widow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and was the Shahbanu (empress) of Iran. Ethiopia and Iran, along with Turkey and Israel, were envisioned as an "alliance of the periphery" that would constrain Arab power in the greater Middle East. Milani noted that neither admitted it was the Shah's "crass infidelities" that caused this issue. Previous royal consorts had been known as "Malakeh" (Arabic: Malika), or Queen. [282], On 22 October 1979, President Jimmy Carter reluctantly allowed the Shah into the United States to undergo surgical treatment at the New York Hospital–Cornell Medical Center. His dream of what he referred to as a "Great Civilisation" (Persian: تمدن بزرگ‎, romanized: tamadon-e bozorg) in Iran led to a rapid industrial and military modernisation, as well as economic and social reforms. They failed dismally and the Shah decided to leave the country. [48], Mohammad Reza's marriage to Fawzia produced one child, a daughter, Princess Shahnaz Pahlavi (born 27 October 1940). [24], On 21 March 1958, the Iranian New Year's Day, a weeping Shah announced his divorce to the Iranian people in a speech that was broadcast on radio and television; he said that he would not remarry in haste. Milani, Abbas The Shah, London: Macmillan, 2011, p. 395. [198] As Britain had often dominated Iran in the past, the change in roles was greatly gratifying to Mohammad Reza.[198]. The personal standards consisted of a field of pale blue, the traditional colour of the Iranian imperial family, at the centre of which was placed the heraldic motif of the individual. [18] In the final part of their trip, the imperial couple visited Cologne where they stayed with Soraya's parents. The odds favored gallstones, since his fever, chills and abdominal distress suggested an infection of the biliary tract. [17] Unaware of what the doctors had revealed to Soraya, Newsweek sarcastically wrote "even the Shahanshah (King of Kings), Vice Regent of God, Shadow of the Almighty and Center of the Universe deserves a vacation....They [the imperial couple] have spent this winter in a private visit to the U.S...physical check-ups in New York hospitals, sight-seeing in San Francisco, dancing the mambo in Hollywood, skiing in Sun Valley, water-skiing in Miami Beach". Another friend was Parisian socialite Lily Claire Sarran. [157] The message was further reinforced the next day when the "Parade of Persian History" was performed at Persepolis when 6,000 soldiers dressed in the uniforms of every dynasty from the Achaemenids to the Pahlavis marched past Mohammad Reza in a grand parade that many contemporaries remarked "surpassed in sheer spectacle the most florid celluloid imaginations of Hollywood epics". And it is easy to see now why many Iranians continue to resent this intervention by America in their internal affairs. [10] His father was born in Alasht, Savadkuh County, Māzandarān Province. [102], During the following two days, the Communists turned against Mosaddegh. [1][3] She had one sibling, a younger brother, Bijan (1937–2001). Then, in 1975, the countries signed the Algiers Accord, which granted Iran equal navigation rights in the Shatt al-Arab as the thalweg was now the new border, while Mohammad Reza agreed to end his support for Iraqi Kurdish rebels. [316] Reza Khan, who was less religious, dismissed these visions as nonsense, and told his son to have more common sense. [218][219], As nationwide protests and strikes swept Iran, the court found it impossible to get decisions from Mohammad Reza, as he became utterly passive and indecisive, content to spend hours listlessly staring into space as he rested by the Caspian Sea while the revolution raged. Do we want nuclear power stations? They later divorced and he married to Manijeh Jahanbani in Tehran on 6 March 1962. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Wiki: Salary, Married, Wedding, Spouse, Family Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was the last Shah of Iran, his reign lasted from 1941 until his overthrow in 1979. General Omar Torrijos, the dictator of Panama kept Mohammad Reza as a virtual prisoner at the Paitilla Medical Center, a hospital condemned by the former Shah's American doctors as "an inadequate and poorly staffed hospital", and in order to hasten his death allowed only Panamanian doctors to treat his cancer. [20] Soraya, who had never read the constitution, did not know that there was no "Council of Wise Men", which was the Shah's way of putting off a difficult decision by lying. On the evening of 11 February, the dissolution of the monarchy was complete. She believed that dreams were messages from another world, sacrificed lambs to bring good fortune and scare away evil spirits, and clad her children with protective amulets to ward off the power of the evil eye. [168], Concerning the fate of Bahrain (which Britain had controlled since the 19th century, but which Iran claimed as its own territory) and three small Persian Gulf islands, the Shah negotiated an agreement with the British, which, by means of a public consensus, ultimately led to the independence of Bahrain (against the wishes of Iranian nationalists). [163] Intense Francophiles, Mohammad Reza and Farah preferred to speak French rather than Persian to their children. This was the merger of the New Iran Party,[188] a centre-right party, and the People's Party,[189] a liberal party. Mohammad Reza considered himself to be a socialist, saying he was "more socialist and revolutionary than anyone". Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi was the last Shah of Iran who reigned from 1941 to 1979 and introduced many reforms to foster economic developments in Iran. [18] The Shah's daughter by his first marriage, Princess Shahnaz, who was studying in Belgium, also went to Cologne to see her father, which caused a jealous Soraya to throw what was called an "embarrassing tantrum", demanding that her husband show love only to her, which finally led to the Shah to tell her to shut up. Concurrent with this celebration, Mohammad Reza changed the benchmark of the Iranian calendar from the hegira to the beginning of the First Persian Empire, measured from Cyrus the Great's coronation. [157] A brochure put up by the Celebration Committee explicitly stated the message: "Only when change is extremely rapid, and the past ten years have proved to be so, does the past attain new and unsuspected values worth cultivating", going on to say the celebrations were held because "Iran has began to feel confident of its modernization". Fakhr-Arai was instantly shot by nearby officers. [21][20], Mohammad Reza described his father in his book Mission for My Country as "one of the most frightening men" he had ever known, depicting Reza Khan as a dominating man with a violent temper. The monarch also actively extends his influence to all phases of social affairs ... there is hardly any activity or vocation in which the Shah or members of his family or his closest friends do not have a direct or at least a symbolic involvement. [123] Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev ordered Mohammad Reza assassinated. Shahbanou Farah Pahlavi Wiki Biography. However, he and his supporters argued that the celebrations opened new investments in Iran, improved relationships with the other leaders and nations of the world, and provided greater recognition of Iran. [119] On 27 February 1958, a military coup to depose the Shah led by General Valiollah Gharani was thwarted, which led to a major crisis in Iranian-American relations when evidence emerged that associates of Gharani had met American diplomats in Athens, which the Shah used to demand that henceforward no American officials could meet with his opponents. [75] Knowing Qavam's penchant for corruption, the Shah used that issue as a reason to sack him. Besides the probable obstruction – he now had been deeply jaundiced for six to eight weeks – he was emaciated and suffering from hard tumor nodes in the neck and a swollen spleen, signs that his cancer was worsening, and he had severe anemia and very low white blood counts. "[12] Soraya wrote about her joy at attending school in Europe, unlike the Iranian schools with "the grey uniform, the stove which smoked and polluted the classroom, lessons, homework, work to the point of exhaustion". [284] Mohammad Reza's time in New York was highly uncomfortable; he was under a heavy security detail as every day, Iranian students studying in the United States gathered outside his hospital to shout "Death to the Shah! You must remain firm and constant. 398. "[79], Mohammad Reza often spoke of women as sexual objects who existed only to gratify him, which led to his 1973 exchange with Fallaci, who vehemently objected to his attitudes towards women. 292–293, Seven Events That Made America America, By, Islam and Politics, John L. Esposito, p. 212. [109] In 1954, when twelve university professors issued a public statement criticising the 1953 coup, all were dismissed from their jobs, but in the first of his many acts of "magnanimity" towards the National Front, Mohammad Reza intervened to have them reinstated. [22] A tough, fierce, and very ambitious soldier who became the first Persian to command the elite Russian-trained Cossack Brigade, Reza Khan liked to kick subordinates in the groin who failed to follow his orders; growing up under his shadow, Mohammad Reza was a deeply scarred and insecure boy who lacked self-confidence. [218] To try to stop his cancer, Bernard and Flandrin had Mohammad Reza take prednisone, a drug that can cause depression and impair thinking. [165], The Shah's diplomatic foundation was the United States' guarantee that it would protect his regime, enabling him to stand up to larger enemies. [12] Several times, Soraya advised Mohammad Reza "to screw up his courage to the sticking point". [68], In 1945–46, the main issue in Iranian politics were the Soviet-sponsored separatist government in Iranian Azerbaijan and Kurdistan, which greatly alarmed the Shah. Rahman, Tahir (2007). [8] The 2,000 guests included Aga Khan III. [24] On 10 March, a council of advisers met with the Shah to discuss the situation of the troubled marriage and the lack of an heir. [142] At least 200 people were killed, with the police throwing some students to their deaths from high buildings, and Khomeini was exiled to Iraq in August 1964. Entertainment included an equestrian circus from Rome. [25] The Polish journalist Ryszard Kapuściński observed in his book Shah of Shahs that looking at old photographs of Reza Khan and his son, he was struck by how self-confident and assured Reza Khan appeared in his uniform while Mohammad Reza appeared nervous and jittery in his uniform standing next to his father. The Armed Forces were also engaged in infrastructural and other educational projects throughout the country "Sepāh-e Tarvij va Ābādāni" (Persian: سپاه ترویج و آبادانی lit. "[187], However, by 1975, Mohammad Reza had abolished the two-party system of government in favour of a one-party state under the Rastakhiz (Resurrection) Party. Female Cyclist Angers Hard-Liners In Iran By Riding Without Her Hijab [264], In October 1971, Mohammad Reza celebrated the twenty-five-hundredth anniversary of the Iranian monarchy; The New York Times reported that $100 million was spent on the celebration. [125] An investigation by the British embassy soon uncovered the reason why: Mohammad Reza wanted to bed the wife of the Siemens sales agent for Iran, and the Siemens agent had consented to allowing his wife to sleep with the Shah in exchange for winning back the contract that he had just lost. [44] After the Islamic Revolution in 1979, a best-selling book was published by the new regime, Ernest Perron, the Husband of the Shah of Iran by Mohammad Pourkian, alleging a homosexual relationship between the Shah and Perron, which has remained the official interpretation in the Islamic Republic to the present day. [12] She wrote that Perron was a "cunning, perfidious and Machiavellian" man who "roused hatred, stirred gossip, reveled in every intrigue". Referred to as Operation Ajax,[93] the plot hinged on orders signed by Mohammad Reza to dismiss Mosaddegh as prime minister and replace him with General Fazlollah Zahedi, a choice agreed on by the British and Americans. Born in Tehran, to Reza Khan (later Reza Shah Pahlavi) and his second wife, Tadj ol-Molouk, Mohammad Reza was the eldest son of Reza Khan, who later became the first Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty, and the third of his eleven children. Soraya hated Ernest Perron, the Shah's best friend and private secretary. But I was drawn to the liver tissues that had also been removed. "[255], Explanations for the overthrow of Mohammad Reza include his status as a dictator put in place by a non-Muslim Western power, the United States,[256][257] whose foreign culture was seen as influencing that of Iran. [116] During this period, Mohammad Reza sought the support of the ulema, and resumed the traditional policy of persecuting those Iranians who belonged to the Baháʼí Faith, allowing the chief Baháʼí temple in Tehran to be razed in 1955 and bringing in a law banning the Baháʼí from gathering together in groups. He curbed the power of certain ancient elite factions by expropriating large and medium-sized estates for the benefit of more than four million small farmers. The book is his personal account of his reign and accomplishments, as well as his perspective on issues related to the Iranian Revolution and Western foreign policy toward Iran. [328][329] Despite these charges, in his book Answer to History, Pahlavi affirms that he "never made the slightest profit" out of the Foundation. [173] Iraq threatened war over the Iranian move, but when on 24 April 1969 an Iranian tanker escorted by Iranian warships sailed down the Shatt al-Arab without paying tolls, Iraq, being the militarily weaker state, did nothing. [31] She appeared as a character named Soraya in the 1965 movie She. Also buried there is Farouk of Egypt, Mohammad Reza's former brother-in-law. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran with his bride, Princess Soraya Esfandiary Bakhtiari. [240] On 5 November 1978, Mohammad Reza went on Iranian television to say "I have heard the voice of your revolution" and promise major reforms. On Iran, and other languages [ 251 ] Bakhtiar dissolved SAVAK, freed all political prisoners, and controlled. Hassan had other motives a circle depicting Mount Damavand with a blanket as guards waved his through... 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