This can be a difficult pest to control and it may take m… The crapemyrtle bark scale, Acanthococcus (=Eriococcus) lagerstromiae (Kuwana), was first confirmed in the USA in 2004 in the landscape near Dallas (TX), although it was likely introduced earlier. However, if one does not want to spray or apply a soil drench with an insecticide on the crape myrtles, there is another option. Crapemyrtle Bark Scale National Research Team Website. For the use of soil systemic treatments (dinotefuran), the amount to apply is based upon the height of the crape myrtle (if shrub-like) or the cumulative diameters of the trunks (if tall and tree form). A soil drench is far safer for the applicator and for protecting wildlife and beneficial insects (as these do not feed on the plant), much more so than spraying an insecticide all throughout the plant. In its native range, it has been reported on plants from 16 different genera and 13 families, most notable persimmon and pomegranate. This information is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement of brand names or registered trademarks by the Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service is implied, nor is any discrimination intended by the exclusion of products or manufacturers not named. Photo by Sarah Watts. Heavy infestations of crapemyrtle bark scale produce sufficient honeydew to coat leaves, stems and bark of the tree. However, do not confuse the honeydew and resulting black sooty mold caused by an aphid infestation with that caused by the crapemyrtle bark scale. This will also allow for better spray coverage. Crapemyrtle bark scale: A new exotic pest. The insect was first noted in McKinney, Texas (self-designated as America’s “crapemyrtle city”), in 2005 and had spread throughout most of the Dallas-Fort Worth area by … Up close, CMBS is whit… These include pomegranate, persimmon, edible fig, boxwood, American beautyberry, cleyera, privet, and raspberries. Crapemyrtle Bark Scale Crapemyrtle Bark Scale- CMBS CMBS is a relatively new and invasive pest that was introduced from Asia and first identified in Dallas, TX several years ago. Repeat the spray in 2 weeks and repeat 2 weeks later, which will be before the crape myrtle begins flowering again. Short distance spread likely occurs via wind or by hitchhiking on birds, mammals and larger flying insects. Crape myrtles are ubiquitous in home and commercial landscapes in our area, but a new pest has the potential to effect these (arguably over-planted) shrubs. Biology and Management of the Crapemyrtle Bark Scale: Landscape and Nursery Growers. Gu et al. If alive, scraping will result in “bleeding” of their reddish body fluids. Miller et al. A group of entomologists, horticulturalists, and economists around the country have teamed together to tackle this pest. (Click scientific name for distribution in the U.S.). Scraping the soft crapemyrtle bark scales can reveal if the scales are alive or dead. As with most insects, there are several life stages and the appearance of CMBS changes with the stages. Crape myrtle bark scale is relatively easy to identify. Crapemyrtle bark scale: a new threat for crapemyrtles, a popular landscape plant in the U.S. Insects, 7(4): 78. Prune out the rest. Crepe Myrtle Bark Scale is a relatively new nonnative scale that was first detected in the U.S. in 2004. White Scale on Crepe Myrtles All varieties are susceptible to attack by crape myrtle scales, although research is underway to see if some are more so than others. Wang et al. (Mike Merchant - Texas AgriLife Extension Service) By dallasnews Administrator Poster. The soil systemic insecticides may have a minor harmful effect on pollinating insects that feed on the pollen and nectar, but this should be much less of an impact than spraying a plant in bloom, which would likely kill pollinating insects. First detected in north-central Texas in … Often times, the first sign of CMBS is the black sooty mold on the tree bark. Immature crapemyrtle bark scale are hard to see with the naked eye, but adult scale covers and egg sacs are frequently visible on the upper branches and trunk of the tree. Mengmeng Gu, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service, Bugwood.org. In the U.S., crapemyrtle bark scale has been seen primarily on crapemyrtle (Lagerstromia spp. On old growth, the scale insects may be aggregated around pruning wounds or branch crotches, whereas distribution is typically more uniform on new growth where the small, pink juveniles (… In spring they produce eggs beneath their body then die. Crape myrtle bark scale (CMBS) is relatively easy to identify. Crape myrtles are a very hardy trees with lots of reserves, so it would take several seasons of bark scale for the tree to succumb to this pest. Each female lays about 60 to 250 eggs, which may over-winter within their ovisacs, and then hatch during mid- to late April to May. This new “bug”, Crapemyrtle Bark Scale (CMBS), is an insect from Asia that attacks crapemyrtles. A little insect called the “Crape Myrtle Bark Scale”, or CMBS, is turning out in mass numbers and when they feed on the crape myrtle sap they excrete a sticky substance called honeydew. Based on information from similar plant growth zones in China and observations reported fr… Care should be taken to preserve natural enemies where possible. Mature female adults form a waxy protective covering (ovisac), mate with a male scale, and begin laying eggs. Texas A&M AgriLife Extension. Poster. Copyright © 2020 Clemson UniversityClemson Cooperative Extension | 103 Barre Hall Clemson, SC 29634864-986-4310 | Contact Us[email protected], College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences, Centipedegrass Yearly Maintenance Program, Gordon’s Zylam Liquid Systemic Insecticide, Ferti-lome Broad Spectrum Insecticide Concentrate, Ferti-lome Horticultural Oil Spray Concentrate. With a scale heavy infestation, there may be premature bark peeling. Th… Photo credit: Mengmeng Gu, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service, bugwood.org. Photo by Erfan K. Vafaie, Texas A&M AgriLife Extension. Click for a hub of Extension resources related to the current COVID-19 situation. Figure 5. These plants should be closely inspected for the CMBS, especially if crapemyrtles are planted nearby. To determine crawler activity at your location, consider using double-sided sticky tape traps around the branch of the tree. This systemic insecticides is available in a number of brands as concentrates for use as a soil drench, and in a few brands as granular products to scatter around the plants and water into the soil. Crepe Myrtle Bark Scale (let’s call it CMBS) is a small insect that appears as a white or gray felt-like encrustation. The crape myrtle bark scale (CMBS) is a felt scale that covers its body with a white, fibrous sac where it lays eggs. The female’s body shrinks as eggs are produced. Photo credit: Rick Grantham, Oklahoma State University; and … Gu et al. Adult females produce a white, felt-like sac around their bodies and lay approximately 100 to 300 pink eggs inside this sac. Figure from Wang et al. This scale will settle to feed under loose, exfoliating bark of the crapemyrtle, which makes control by both predators and pesticides more difficult. Jim Robbins, University of Arkansas CES, Bugwood.org. The eggs remain protected within the white colored ovisacs until the crawlers (immatures) hatch and disperse onto the branches. Applications should be timed to target crawlers or immature nymphs before coating themselves in the white wax. Wang, Z.; Chen, Y.; Knox, G.W. Since then, it has spread rapidly through Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Georgia. If you live in the Mid-South, you most likely have a crepe myrtle in your yard or … Effective management of crapemyrtle bark scale relies on good monitoring practices to ensure that pesticides are targeted towards vulnerable stages. (2015). Eggs hatch into tiny pink crawlers, and the older Female CMBS will then produce the white felt sac, while male CMBS develop wings and fly off searching for mates. It has only been found on crape myrtles and American beautyberry (Callicarpa americana) in the US, but has been found on other species outside the US. After hatching, the scale emerging from the egg is called a crawler. When numbers of crawlers start to increase, consider control measures below. Upon completing their immature lifecycle, males pupate within the adult scale cover, and emerge as a winged adult. Poster. Presence of ladybeetle pupa indicates some predation. Bark and systemic insecticidal control of Acanthococcus (=Eriococcus) lagerstromiae (crapemyrtle bark scale) on landscape crapemyrtles, 2016. COVID-19 Extension Updates and Resources ... More Information », Factsheet | HGIC 2015 | Updated: Oct 3, 2019 | Print | Download (PDF), September 2019 Distribution map for CMBS from EDDMaps.org. They especially congregate in branch crotches and at pruning sites. Crape Myrtle Bark Scale (CMBS), like its host, originated in Asia. Adult females are felt-like white or gray encrustations that stick to crape myrtle parts ranging from small twigs to large trunks. However, they have a waxy coating and exude honeydew, as do soft scales. Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostics Laboratory, Texas A&M College of Agrculture and Life Sciences, Biology and Management of the Crapemyrtle Bark Scale: Landscape and Nursery Growers, Alternative hosts of crapemyrtle bark scale. Since its introduction, crapemyrtle bark scale has spread across most of the southeastern United States. Crape myrtle bark scale is a relatively recent pest that is affecting crepe myrtle trees in a growing area across the southeastern United States. Aphids are small insect pests that feed on new tender growth on the ends of branches. The bark spray applications should ideally be made when crawlers are out and exposed; typically near mid-April and beginning of May. StopCMBS.com, Jiang, N.; Xu, H. (1998) Observation on Eriococcus lagerstroemiae Kuwana. See Table 1 for examples of products containing this systemic insecticides. The eggs remain protected within the white colored ovisacs until the crawlers (immatures) hatch and disperse onto the branches. Once settled on the tree, the crawler remains in the same spot for the remainder of its immature life. Discover and spread of Eriococcus lagerstromiae Kuwana (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae), a new invasive pest of crape myrtle, Lagerstromia spp. (2016a). Join our mailing list to receive the latest updates from HGIC. Adult females produce a white, felt-like sac around their bodies and lay approximately 100 to 300 pink eggs inside this sac. Texas A&M AgriLife Extension. Spread and management of Eriococcus lagerstromiae Kuwana (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) on crapemyrtle. No “bleeding” will occur if they have been killed. (2017). A closer inspection of infested crapemyrtles will show copious sooty mold on leaves, branches, and trunks. Follow all directions for mixing and safe use. … Adult females look similar to felt and are colored either white or gray and they have encrustations that stick to crape myrtle parts ranging from small twigs to large trunks. Therefore, the best time to spray is in the very late evening to reduce the impact on pollinators. Arthropod Management Tests, 42: tsx130. Insecticides to Control Crapemyrtle Bark Scale on Crapemyrtles. Prune, then spray with the bifenthrin and horticultural oil mix. The crawlers are pink, very small, and may not be noticed without a hand lens. The female’s body shrinks as eggs are pro-duced. Identification of crapemyrtle bark scale is relatively simple because this is the first and only bark scale known to feed on crapemyrtle in the United States. When crushed, these scales exude pink “blood”-like liquid. It now appears that this species of scale was introduced to the U.S. from China. Crape myrtle bark scale is a felt scale related to azalea bark scale and oak eriococcin scale. Females lay between 114 to 320 eggs in their lifetime (Jiang et al. Since its introduction, crapemyrtle bark scale has spread across most of the southeastern United States. Adult females are felt-like white or gray encrustations that stick to crape myrtle parts ranging from small twigs to large trunks. Minor pruning of the crape myrtle will reduce some height and remove flowers present to lessen the impact of the bifenthrin insecticide spray on pollinators. Helene Dougherty, Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Bugwood.org, Crapemyrtle branches can become completely covered with crapemyrtle bark scale.Jim Robbins, University of Arkansas CES, Bugwood.org. These bark scales produce copious amounts of honeydew, the sugary waste the scale produces as it feeds on the plant’s phloem. Crapemyrtle bark scale on a potted crapemyrtle at the Overton Texas A&M AgriLife Research and Extension Center. Keep in mind that there can be a spray drift from spraying upward, and the insecticide can have an impact on pollinators of nearby flowering shrubs and herbaceous plants. 1998) and die in the egg sac. (2018). It is one of the only scales known to infest crape myrtles. Although not yet confirmed, some additional plant hosts of crapemyrtle bark scale may include: Crapemyrtle bark scale is a new insect pest to the Southeastern US. Filed Under: EntoExtension, Insect Tagged With: black branches, Crapemyrtle bark scale, white scale. Crapemyrtle bark scale (CMBS) has been confirmed in Richland County (Columbia) in South Carolina this year. In its native range, it has been reported on plants from 16 different genera and 13 families, most notable persimmon and pomegranate. Table 1. Adult males, which are rarely seen, are winged and mobile. Alernatively, sprays for crawlers are best applied in the late April and May, then again in late summer when immatures appear. These scales include larger, white, oval (female) and smaller, elongate (male) scales. The CMBS is a bark or felt scale, which is slightly different from soft scales. You may be first alerted of the presence of the black sooty mold which has deve… A&M has identified this pest as Eriococcus lagerstroemiae, and suspects that it was brought into the U.S. on a crape myrtle plant. Eggs hatch into tiny pink crawlers, and the older nymphs are pink, gray, or brown. (2017). On new growth and in heavy infestations, the scales may be distributed more uniformly on a branch. Now it has been discovered in North Carolina and Virginia, and the distant spread of this pest has likely been through the movement of plant material. To determine if the soil drench treatments have been effective, scrape the soft bodies of the CMBS adults on a branch. Use a bifenthrin spray mixed with 2% horticultural oil (i.e., 5 tablespoons of horticultural oil per gallon of water in a sprayer) added for best crawler control. If this document didn’t answer your questions, please contact HGIC at [email protected] or 1-888-656-9988. About Crape Myrtle Bark Scale. Therefore, a light pruning, which reduces the height, may reduce the amount of product required to treat the plant. When crushed, these scales exude pink “blood”-like liquid. In one year, there could be at least two generations of CMBS. Crapemyrtle trees shed their bark, and if crapemyrtle bark scale has been effectively managed, no new white spots or sooty mold should form after bark shedding. Crapemyrtle bark scale is found almost exclusively on the bark. Vafaie et al. Samples were collected by Sarah Watts, Extension Agriculture Technician, and confirmed at the NC State University Plant Disease and Insect Clinic by Dr. Matt Bertone, Extension Associate. The crapemyrtle bark scale is an invasive insect pest that was first reported in the United States in 2004. Natural predators may take a while to build up in numbers, but both lady beetles and mealybug destroyers are very effective in controlling CMBS. Crapemyrtles suffer aesthetic damage because of the CMBS infestations. Poster. (In Chinese). Once the mated females produce their ovisacs (egg-containing capsules) and lay eggs, they die. Entomological Society of America. (, Bifenthrin (variable results, as a bark spray). Gu, M. (2018). Gray bark scale won’t kill crape myrtles, but it can be washed off if you don’t like the look. This can make for a significant safety issue for the individual spraying the plants for insect pest control, while attempting to get good coverage of a tall crape myrtle. CMBS might be able to overwinter in the adult female and egg life stages, and crawlers and later stage nymphs have been observed overwintering under the loose bark and in cracks and crevices of crapemyrtles in our area. Fertilize the sprout growth twice during the spring (April 1st and again mid-May) with a slow-release tree & shrub fertilizer, and within 3 years, the crape myrtle will again be a beautiful flowering plant. Heavy infestation of crapemyrtle bark scale with sooty mold. Please note that crapemyrtle aphids, a common pest found on crapemyrtle leaves, can also be a source of honeydew and subsequent sooty mold. Texas A&M AgriLife Extension. As it feeds, it excretes a sugary solution known as “honeydew” (similar to aphids, whiteflies, and other sucking insects). Do not spray if it is windy, and wear the recommended protective gear stated on the label, especially if the plants are tall. Female scales produce fluffy white filaments that cover their body. Crape myrtle bark scale, Eriococcus lagerstroemiae, belongs to a special group of scale insects known as felt scales. According to Texas AgriLife Extension, this harmful pest is newly introduced from the Far East. Often there will be more female adults congregated on the lower (and shadier) sides of branches. Crawler activity appears to peak between mid-April to beginning of May for several locations across Texas and Louisiana. Crape myrtle bark scale is an introduced insect pest from Asia, and it has a great affinity for crape myrtle trees. (2014). Crape myrtle bark scale, Eriococcus lagerstroemiae, belongs to a special group of scale insects known as felt scales. As a result, the leaves, branches, and trunk become covered with black sooty mold, which grows on the honeydew. Adult females are felt-like white or gray encrustations that stick to crape myrtle parts ranging from small twigs to large trunks. Within a tree, first stage crawler numbers are similar on both upper and lower branches, based on trapping on 12 trees in College Station TX throughout one season (Vafaie et al., 2015). Slowly over the last 13 years it has moved northward and … This honeydew turns in to a black sooty mold. All recommendations are for South Carolina conditions and may not apply to other areas. Photo by Erfan Vafaie. Heavy infestations are easily seen due to abundant black sooty mold and patches of the white or gray scales on the trunk, branches, and twigs of crapemyrtle. Crapemyrtle bark scale: a pretty plant, an invasive pest, and a plan to protect pollinators. In a lady beetle exclusion trial (pesticide treatment for lady beetles), natural enemies were found to provide approximately 75% suppression of crapemyrtle bark scale (Merchant et al., unpublished data). Another striking symptom is the extensive amount of black sooty mold that may completely cover the foliage, branches, and trunks. Bark scale originates from China and was brought to the U.S. in 2010. ; Diaz, R. (2016b). Promptly burn the removed trunk and limbs, or cut up and place in garbage bags for trash pickup. in Texas during 2004. So, always plant crapemyrtles in the full sun areas of the landscape. It has recently made its way into West TN and is an active problem in Madison County. 4 through 6). It is one of the only scales known to infest crape myrtles. If the result is the presence of a reddish body fluid of the scales, they are still alive. Select three sprouts that are equally spaced around the cut stump. The problem usually goes unnoticed until plants begin turning black with a fungus called sooty mold when it begins to grow on insect droppings. When crushed, these scales exude pink liquid which apparently is their blood. CMBS might be found anywhere on crepe myrtles bark, and often appears near pruning sites and branch crotches of more mature wood. Although crapemyrtles rarely die as a result of crapemyrtle bark scale infestation, the sticky leaves and black trunks greatly reduce the attractive appearance of the tree. Crape myrtle bark scale is quite easy to detect on a tree if you have a heavy infestation. With the recent appearance of CMBS in Mecklenburg County (Charlotte) in North Carolina, this insect pest may also appear soon in Upstate South Carolina. Spread and management of Acanthococcus (=Eriococcus) lagerstroemiaeKuwana (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) on crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia spp.) for Control of Crapemyrtle Bark Scale Cooperator – Gregg County - Longview, Texas Author - Randy Reeves* and Erfan Vafaie** Year - 2016 Gregg County Summary: In the genus Acanthaacoccus, the scale is a type of felt or bark scale. Several other common landscape plants are susceptible to CMBS infestation. Crepe Myrtle Bark Scale Since 2013, in the city of Germantown, there has been a suspicious decrease in the health and appearance of one of the South’s ubiquitous flowering tree species, the crepe myrtle. Alternative hosts of crapemyrtle bark scale. Above on a branch are the white adults and ovisacs containing their pink eggs. They are most effectively applied in spring as new plant growth begins. It’s a small sap-feeding insect that lives on the bark of certain plants, especially crapemyrtle. These systemic insecticides will move up into the plants and give control for at least a year. Remove and replace with a new piece of tape weekly, and check tapes for presence of crawlers (see images below). Crapemyrtle bark scale: A new exotic pest. Do not place on curb for regular brush pickup. CMBS, first identified in Texas in 2004, has now spread to at least 12 additional states including Alabama. Use pesticides only according to the directions on the label. Vafaie et al. These products are typically found for sale in small containers at feed & seed, farm supply, or landscaper supply stores. The crapemyrtle bark scale (Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae) is a recently introduced pest from Asia that initially infested crapemyrtles (Lagerstroemia spp.) Insecticide applications will not remove white spots or sooty mold, but prevent future scale population growth. The scale is a sucking insect that feeds on the phloem (sap) of plants. Crapemyrtle bark scale: a new threat for crapemyrtles, a popular landscape plant in the U.S. http://www.lsuagcenter.com/ ~/media/system/7/8/d/1/78d165df43ac0d4767607d88dadfb841/pub3440bugbizcrapemyrtlebarkscale_final.pdf, Raspberries, blackberries, dewberries, etc. Vafaie et al. Merchant et al. UT Extension Agent Chris Cooper and Mike Dennison show how to use a soil drench to treat Crape Myrtle Bark Scale. Several natural enemies have been found in the landscape to provide suppression of crapemyrtle bark scale. Chemical Control: The most effective chemical control is a soil drench in the spring with dinotefuran. (2016b). International IPM Symposium. Tiny crawlers hatch from the eggs, settle in their new spot, and begin producing white filaments. The crapemyrtle bark scale is native to Asia, and had previously been reported from China, Japan, and Korea. in the USA. Human transport on infested nursery material likely accounts for the long distance spread of the scale. Crape myrtle bark scale (CMBS) insect has been found in Fauquier. Crape Myrtle Bark Scale. Follow the label directions on bifenthrin products for rate per gallon. A second peak in crawler activity occurs in late summer. These mobile crawlers move out to new twigs and branches to settle down and begin feeding on the sugary phloem layer beneath the bark. Mulch around the plant area to cover the stump. Since the initial sighting in 2004, the crape myrtle bark scale (CMBS) insect has been spreading at an alarming rate across the Southeast. Vafaie et al. Crepe Myrtle Bark Scale is a problem that all Crepe Myrtle are likely to get, and although the insect may not kill the plant, the sticky bug and the black mold are an ugly nuisance. It is one of the only scales known to infest crape myrtles. It has been verified in all areas of both the City of Huntsville and Madison County. Eggs (top) and crawlers (bottom) of crape-myrtle bark scale . The tree on the right is infested and shows reduced flowering. The eggs hatch into crawlers which are pink, grey, or brown and move around the crape myrtle’s trunk. Once cut, the stumps will send up sprouts very quickly. Crape myrtle bark scale (CMBS) was first detected in northern Texas back in 2004 and spread to our area primarily through the movement of nursery plants. Crape myrtle bark scale is relatively easy to iden- tify. CMBS is a miniscule insect that appears as a felt-like gray or white crust on crape myrtle branches, often on the underside away from the sun. (2020). Spraying contact insecticides on egg sacs or pupae may have very little efficacy. Both male and female scales of the crapemyrtle bark scale are immobile, and will “bleed” pink blood when crushed. The small CMBS males are winged and will fly to find females and to mate. Human transport on infested nursery material likely accounts for the long distance spread of the scale. Please see HGIC 1009, Crapemyrtle Pruning for best pruning practices. Once the mated females produce their ovisacs (egg-containing capsules) and lay eggs, they die. It is currently the only bark scale known to feed on crape myrtle in the US. The CMBS infestations appear as white or gray, waxy crustations on stems, large twigs, and trunks, but rarely on foliage. Crapemyrtle bark scale on trunk during winter. Cultural Control: Keep crapemyrtles healthy by properly mulching, irrigating, fertilizing (based on soil test recommendations), and proper pruning. Branches and trunks can be covered in the white scale infestation. What is crapemyrtle bark scale (CMBS)? Univ., 25: 142–144. All recommendations for pesticide use are for South Carolina only and were legal at the time of publication, but the status of registration and use patterns are subject to change by action of state and federal regulatory agencies. Each female lays about 60 to 250 eggs, which may over-winter within their ovisacs, and then hatch during mid- to late April to May. Infested plants typically leaf out later than healthy plants. ), but also more recently confirmed on American beautyberry (Callicarpa americana.). Its closest cousin is the Azalea bark scale, but that species has never been associated with crape myrtle before. The scale has since spread all across the USA. crapemyrtle bark scales and egg sacs. When crushed, these scales exude pink “blood”-like liquid. Crape myrtle bark scale (“CMBS,” Eriococcus lagerstroemia) was first identified in Texas in 2004, and is now a common pest. Bark scales are in a different scale insect family (Eriococcidae) than soft scales (Coccidae), and they look very similar to mealybugs. Double-sided sticky tape wrapped around small branches can be used to trap the crawlers to see when they hatch and to base the timing of additional contact insecticide applications. Crapemyrtle bark scale: a pretty plant, an invasive pest, and a plan to protect pollinators. Spraying female egg sacs and male pupae may not be effective. J. Anhui Agric. Follow all directions, precautions and restrictions that are listed. Based on the literature from its native range (Wang et al. Crapemyrtles in sunnier sites often have smaller infestations than plants growing in more shade, and plants grown in shade typically have more crawlers (immatures) than in full sun. Nymphs actively feed and produce honeydew. Bark and systemic insecticidal control of. Crape myrtle bark scale is a messy insect pest that leaves behind a sticky honeydew residue in which black sooty mold will develop. Thanks to its sugary excrement, it turns crapemyrtles with beautiful honey-colored trunks into black sticks with sticky … Be washed off if you have a heavy infestation, there are several stages., called sooty mold email protected ] or 1-888-656-9988 a plan to protect pollinators ( top and! 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